Flat Panel Technology
IPS (in-plane switching) is a screen technology for liquid-crystal displays. It was designed to solve the main limitations of the twisted nematic (TN) field effect matrix LCDs which were prevalent in the late 1980s.
These limitations included strong viewing angle dependence and low-quality colour reproduction.
IPS involves arranging and switching the orientation of the molecules of the liquid crystal layer between the glass substrates.
This is done, essentially, parallel to these glass plates.
The advantages of the technology are that IPS panels display consistent, accurate colour from all viewing angles. Images are clear and response times stable.
Unlike TN LCDs, IPS panels do not lighten or show tailing when touched. This is important for touch-screen devices.
Edge lit versus Direct LED
There are two types of LED display. Whilst they are both lit using the same lighting type, they are both lit differently.
One type is Edge Lit. In this method, a series of LED backlights are placed along the outside edges of the screen. The light is then dispersed across the screen. The advantage of this method is that the display can be made very thin. The disadvantage of Edge lighting is that black levels are not as deep and the edge area of the screen has a tendency to be brighter than the centre area of the screen.
The other type is Direct Lighting (otherwise known as full LED or LED backlit). In this method, several rows of LEDs are placed behind the entire surface of the screen. The advantage is that these sets can employ "local dimming".
This local dimming improves the blackness of an image, at a cost of a potential 'halo' effect for bright images on dark backgrounds.
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